Sunday, March 31, 2013

How to Keep Speakers From Becoming Brittle

2:37:00 PM
Speakers can become brittle when exposed to harsh elements and not cared for properly. There isn't too much you need to do to protect the exterior of your speakers, but with a few precautions, you can ensure that your speakers have a long life. You need to take care of your speakers, especially if you use speakers in your music recording studio.

Composers need to be able to hear with clarity any balance issues and harmonic problems in electronic and acoustic music. Consider the location, position, and manner in which you clean your speaker to prevent cracking, warping and making the speakers become brittle or cracked. Eventually, you may need to refinish or replace your speakers.

Purchase speaker grill cloth fabric and apply it to the front of the speaker. The cloth will protect your speakers from dust and the sun, while still maintaining a high-quality sound and is an additional layer of protection from the store bought cloth that covers speakers. Also, keep your speakers out of direct sunlight. Sunlight can fade and crack any material, especially the delicate metals and light woods used to construct speakers. Find a cool location for your speakers. Heat from the sun can cause the wood to crack and fade over time.

Clean the speaker case regularly by using a dry cloth. If there is residue on the speakers then lightly dampen the cloth to remove the residue. You shouldn't use commercial furniture cleaners since they will leave a small film on the speaker. Spray water on a cloth and with the speakers unplugged wipe them down. This will prevent foreign material from getting inside the speakers and making them brittle with time. Keep your speakers in a speaker cabinet to further protect them from wear and damage. A speaker cabinet will keep the speakers safe from the elements and mishaps in your home.

Properly maintained speakers should last a very long time. As you use the speakers, the cones on higher quality speakers are broken-in resulting in a higher quality sound. If you have new speakers, consider running your speakers at a medium volume for 24 hours while playing music that you typically play. This allows the speakers to become conditioned and can improve the quality of the sound. Don't blast your speakers at the highest volume when trying to break in your speakers. Blasting may result in a reduction of life and reduce the overall sound quality.

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Thursday, March 28, 2013

How to Change the Pitch of a Song

8:59:00 PM
Changing the pitch of a song is easy with an audio editing program like Audacity. Audacity may be used on both Macintosh and Windows platforms. It is simple to use and suitable for use in professional music studios. The editing capabilities of this program are advanced and require minimal knowledge of audio editing to be able to use. Learning to change the pitch of a song can make it possible to fine-tune a recording to your exact specifications.

Step 1

Download Audacity from their website. Make sure to download the correct version for your system.

Step 2

Install Audacity and open the program to begin editing your music file.

Step 3

Drag the music file into the main editing pane. This will transfer the file into Audacity, making it ready for editing.

Step 4

Click on the "Change Pitch ..." option from underneath the "Effects" menu. A dialog box will open. If you know the starting pitch of the recording, enter it in the first box. If you do not know the starting pitch, enter the pitch C. The piece can be transposed relatively even if the exact pitch is not known.

Step 5

Select the direction in which you want to change the pitch by choosing "Up" or "Down" in the dialog box. Then select the pitch that the piece should be changed to. If you do not know the pitch of the piece, then determine the distance from C that the piece should be transposed to. Enter that pitch in the second box. Press "OK" and your piece will be transposed.

Step 6

Save the piece as a new file and listen to your composition to make sure it is the right pitch. If it isn't what you need, follow the steps again until you get the exact pitch you want for the song.

How to Change the Pitch of a Harp

8:58:00 PM
Lever harps use a simple foot pedal system to change the pitch of all the strings on the harp. By using your feet, you can create any pitch you like. However, changing the pitch of one note on an orchestral harp with levers will change the pitch of all of the connected pitches on the harp. For instance, you can't have a C and a C-sharp on the same set of strings. By changing the C string, all of the notes with C as a pitch will be changed as well.

Step 1

Locate the seven pedals on the bottom of the harp. When the pedals are in the middle position, they play a natural pitch; when they are in the highest position, they play flats and the lowest position will play sharps.

Step 2

Learn the names of the pedals from left to right. The three pedals on the left side control the pitches D, C and B. The four pedals on the right control the pitches E, F, G and A.

Step 3

Adjust the pedal that corresponds to the pitch you wish to change. To play an E-sharp, adjust the corresponding pedal to the lowest position by pushing down with your foot. To play E, make sure the pedal is in the middle position. To play E-sharp, use the toe of your foot to push the pedal to the top position.

Celtic harps often only have a single pedal that will adjust all of the strings up or down. It is not possible on a Celtic or folk harp to change individual pitches.

How to Change the Notes of the Xylophone

8:57:00 PM
Student-level xylophones come with extra bars that create additional scales, play lower pitches and act as replacements. These extension notes come at the cost of using other more standard pitches. Changing the bars is easy, but it requires you to decide what notes you will not need to use in the composition. It is rare to change the notes since the xylophone comes equipped with the most commonly used pitches.

Step 1

Pull up gently on the bottom of the xylophone bar with one hand. The bottom can be found by looking for the rubber pin located about one and a half inches from the top of the bar. The bottom is not connected and will pull up easily.

Step 2

Press your thumb into the rubber pin located toward the top of the xylophone bar with your other hand. With your index and middle fingers, grab the underside of the top of the bar and pull up.

Step 3

Insert the desired bars onto the xylophone by lining up the hole in the bar with the rubber pin. Push down and gently let the bar fall into place in its slot.


The pitches for each bar are written on the top of each bar.

Wednesday, March 27, 2013

How to Change the Pitch of Tubular Chimes

9:01:00 PM
Tubular chimes are cut to a certain length, to play specific pitches. In order to change the pitch of a tubular chime, you must change the length of the tubing. Because it is impractical to change a pitch in the performance by modifying a single chime, tubular bells come with several preconfigured bars that allow you to change pitches and play a complete chromatic scale. Once you understand how the chimes work, you will be able to play any pitch you want, within a one-octave range.

  1. Determine what pitch you would like to sound when you hit the chimes. The main chimes in front move diatonically from middle C to the F approximately an octave and a fifth higher. The chimes in the back are chromatic, starting with C-sharp and D-sharp on the paired set and F-sharp, G-sharp, and A-sharp on the triple set.
  2. Using a hammer, hit the new pitch you would like to play, by hammering against the rim of the tubular chimes.
  3. Create a louder or softer sound, by changing the degree at which you hammer against the chimes. You can also place a cloth tied around the center of the chimes, to muffle the level of sound produced.
  4. Change the pitch of an individual chime, by ordering a replacement chime that plays the specific pitch you want. Remove the screw that holds the old chime in place. Then replace it with the new chime.

The Circle of Fifths in Relationship to Key Signatures

2:41:00 PM
The circle of fifths is a useful tool to determine the relative major and minor key signatures, as well as the relationships between the number of sharps and flats, and the name of the key.

Relative Minor and Major Key Signatures

Relative minor and major keys are keys that share the same key signature. For instance, G Major has 1 sharp and E minor also has 1 sharp. Because they share the same number of sharps they are considered relative to each other.

To determine the relative minor of a major key, simply find the major key and match it with its minor equivalent. For instance, G major is the relative major of e minor because they have 1 sharp each. To find the relative major just go in the opposite direction. E minor is the relative minor of G major for the same reason.

Parallel Minor and Major Key Signatures

Parallel minor and major keys are keys that share the same tonic, or key name. For instance, D Major and d minor may have different relative key signatures, but they share the same tonic. Because of this D major is said to be parallel to d minor.

Given this information, you can easily see that D Major has 2 sharps while d minor has 1 flat. One easy way to determine the parallel major key signature from a minor key signature is to add 3 sharps. In the case of D minor, adding three sharps will give you 2 sharps in the key signature. As another example, e minor has 1 sharp, so it's parallel major must have 4 sharps. If you look at the circle of fifths, you will see that this is, in fact, correct.

To go from major to minor, simply add three flats. Let's try A Major:

A Major has 3 sharps, so we need to add 3 flats to get it's parallel minor key signature. 3 flats cancel out the 3 sharps and you are left with no sharps or flats. After checking with the Circle of Fifths, this is correct as the minor key with no sharps or flats is a minor.

Remember that a sharp cancels out a flat, and a flat cancels out a sharp.

The Order of Sharps and Flats

The final concept that the Circle of Fifths simplifies is determining the order of sharps and flats. This order is the order in which they appear in the key signature.

For sharps, you simply start with the key that has one sharp and work your way around moving in fifths:

F# C# G# D# A# E# B# (Note that I am referring to the actual key signatures in the circle of fifths and not the names of the keys.)

For flats you start with the key that has one flat and proceed by adding flats to the key signature:

Bb Eb Ab Db Gb Cb Fb

Notice that the order of flats is the order of sharps backwards and vice-versa. Note that with sharps you have to start with F# on the top line and keep each additional sharp as close to F# as possible as long as they stay within the staff. A# is placed lower because it would leave the staff if it was placed above. With flats, you have to start with Bb in the center of the staff and follow the same sort of logic.

The Arban Trumpet, Trombone, Baritone, and Euphonium Method and Technique

2:39:00 PM
The Arban methods provide players with a professional technique that helps them learn proper posture, breathing, articulations, and develops coordination. Music studios use this technique as a supplement to learning standard repertoire. Mastering these techniques makes the process of learning a new piece easier. It contains the fundamentals that all trumpet players’ need to learn and, for this reason, is referred to as the “bible” of trumpet technique.


The method starts with an overview that details correct posture and the best way to hold the trumpet. The student is instructed to sit up straight with the shoulders relaxed. For instance, in the trumpet method players support the trumpet with the left hand making the right hand free to depress the valves as necessary. Breathe properly by taking air into the diaphragm and letting the airflow naturally through the lungs and out the mouth; avoid stagnating the air when you play.


The major articulations are legato, staccato, accented notes, slurring, and basic tonguing. Proper tongue placement and the correct syllable for each articulation is discussed thoroughly in the method book. Practicing with a metronome is essential to create consistent and timely attacks. Through the exercises provided in the book the player will develop a solid technique that produces a clear, clean, and even tone.

Scales and Arpeggios

Scales and Arpeggios make up the greater portion of the trumpet player’s technique. As such, the majority of the Arban method is devoted to improving technique. Scales, arpeggios, and rhythmic exercises are all created to improve a student’s technical skill. The instructor may require that advanced students transpose each exercise as well. Players are often asked to transpose quickly and play multiple instruments and music that requires transposition.


Several famous solos, opera arias, and virtuosic works are included in the back of the Arban method. These musical works help the player learn to interpret musical phrases and develop musicality. While many instructors choose to supplement the Arban method with works outside of the text, it provides a useful compendium of challenging music that can certainly help to improve a player’s skill. Some famous works include the virtuoso piece, “The Carnival of Venice” and “Norma”.

Origins of the Tempered Musical Scale

2:34:00 PM
The tempered scale consists of 12 notes that have been modified to fit equally over the distance of an octave. Tempered scales make ensemble playing and the creation of instruments that can play a full chromatic scale standardized. Without the tempered scale, intervals would not be equally spaced from each other. A minor second between one scale degree wouldn't be consistent. This would also make the difference between each enharmonic more pronounced as a C# scale would sound slightly different than a Db scale.

The truth is that the tones that are available are much greater than the minimal system of 12 pitches.There are notes in between our minor seconds which are not currently being used. This means that in the future, and this is already beginning to happen, there may exist scales with more than just 12 pitches.

There are various ways to produce these notes on instruments, but there isn’t a set of standard instruments that could play these in an orchestral setting.The first step for these tones to be available is the creation of instruments that can perform them. These "notes between the notes" are called microtones. Several composers have tried to incorporate them in compositions.

Most likely, these new instruments will come in the form of electronic manipulations of sound. In fact, that is one of the effects that electronic music has been able to incorporate so easily into music. Maybe in the future these tones will become more familiar and instrument makers will devise new ways in which to create instruments that can play these tones.When the number of notes in a tempered system is increased, music gets closer to the sounds available in nature.

Computer Optimizations for a Digital Audio Workstation

2:04:00 PM
A digital audio workstation (DAW) makes creating and editing audio files possible through the use of professional music editing software. Making the most of this software and squeezing every last ounce of power out of your computer requires modifications to your Windows system. Before attempting any performance enhancing modifications, ensure that you have a complete backup of your operating system.


A fragmented hard drive will drastically slow down your computer and increase the potential for the introduction of skips and artifacts in your audio. When a disk is fragmented, the hard drive must work harder to access the files that are needed. A defragmented hard drive puts all of the files close together. This means less traveling distance for the needle of the hard drive and a more efficient experience. Defragment your hard drive by right-clicking on the hard drive that is fragmented. In most cases, this is the "C" drive. Click on the "Properties" option from the drop-down menu and choose the "Tools" tab. Select the option to defragment your hard drive.

Background Processes

Background processes run in the background while your computer is on. Many of these processes are not necessary when running audio applications. Each process takes up a certain amount of system resources. Internet connections, screen savers, and virus scanners are just a few processes that should be enabled before running a professional audio application. The option to disable system processes can be found by clicking on the "Control Panel" in the "Program" menu. Then select the "Administrative Tools" icon. Once the window has opened, click on the "Services" option. Disable the following services for best results: "Indexing Service," "iPod Service," "Error Reporting Service," "Messenger," "Alerter," "Application Layer Gateway Service," "Automatic Updates," "Background Intelligent Transfer Service" and "Wireless Zero Configuration." This list is a safe list that will provide you with the most performance enhancements. Be cautious when disabling other services since many are necessary for audio editing.

Network Server

The default method for most machines is to use a cache to provide a faster serving of commonly used files. However, this is not ideal for DAWs. Switching your computer to act as a network server will make it possible to increase the rate of file transfer and prevent the caching of unnecessary files, thereby preserving bandwidth. Change to a network server by right-clicking on the "My Computer" icon on the desktop. Select the "Properties" option from the drop-down menu and then select "File System." Look for the option that states "Desktop Computer" and select the "Network Server" instead. Restart your computer. If you don't see a significant change in speed, then revert your system to a "Desktop Computer." Not all computers will improve by changing the computer to a "Network Server."

Drive Indexing

Windows systems index hard drives to make it easier to find files quickly. While this is great for the average user, it slows down the system and devotes crucial system resources that could be used to run audio processes. Turning off drive indexing helps speed up your system for audio production.

Hard Drive Caching

Hard drive caching provides a crucial service for the average user. By storing important information in the cache it improves system performance. While recording, this can cause dropouts. Since recording uses large chunks of memory, if the cache fills before the audio recording completes, the unneeded information dumps to the hard drive which can ruin a recording.

System Restore

Turn off System Restore and backup programs when recording audio. System Restore and backup programs periodically write information to the hard disk. When recording audio you need all of the system resources available to you to prevent audio dropouts. Rely on manual backups to safeguard your data, or turn on your backup software after you finish recording.

Desktop Cleanup

Every couple of months, Windows cleans up unused items on your desktop. This process isn't needed since most people organize their documents manually. Turn "Desktop Cleanup" off to conserve additional resources.

Uninstall Components

Windows has several components that most users don't need. Consider removing services that slow the system down and use up system resources. Some of the "safe" components to uninstall are listed below. Double-check to make sure that disabling these services won't break your operating system.
  • Accessibility options
  • Indexing service
  • Update root certificates
  • Windows automatic updates
  • Windows messenger
  • Games
  • Dual Boot System
Since an audio system requires specific services and works best when Internet connections and security suites are disabled it makes sense to create a dual boot system. Create two partitions on your hard drive and dedicate one of the partitions to audio work. This partition should only connect to the Internet to download software updates and when needed for authentication. Otherwise, keep the Internet connection completely disabled.

Tuesday, March 26, 2013

How to Change the Time Signature in MuseScore

9:02:00 PM
Time signatures tell the performer how many beats are in the measure and which note value is worth one beat. This element is a crucial element of any musical score. In MuseScore most of the elements that you need to change use a simple method to add elements to a score. Changing the time signature to the correct one is one of the first steps you should take before writing music.

Step 1

Double-click the application in the application menu to open the program. Once the program is open, select the score that you wish to modify and open it.

Step 2

Click on the fifth option from the top, the Time Signature menu, on the right-hand side of the program screen. A list of time signatures will appear.

Step 3

Click and drag the time signature that you would like to use to the correct measure in the score. For instance, If you want the time signature to appear at the beginning of the score, drag the time signature to the first measure. If your time signature is not listed, continue to Step 4.

Step 4

Determine the numbers you need for your time signature. You can do this by determining how many beats are in each measure; this number will be the top number. Then determine what note value gets one beat; this will be your bottom value.

Step 5

Select the "Create" file menu and click on the "Time Signatures" option. A box will appear with two options for you to customize.

Step 6

Enter in the correct time signature in the box that appears. The box is set up like a normal time signature. The value on top will be the number that appears on the top half of the time signature. The number on bottom will appear on the bottom half of the time signature.

Step 7

Click the add button and view your new time signature in the preview pane to the right. Drag your time signature to the measure in which you wish it to appear and you are done.

Monday, March 25, 2013

How to Change Trumpet Notes Into Trombone Notes

9:03:00 PM
Changing the pitch of an entire musical line is called transposing. There are two types of pitches: concert and written. Concert pitch is the pitch you hear. The written pitch may be different from the concert pitch and is written for the instrument. In music, some instruments are considered transposing instruments. The trumpet is a transposing instrument because it sounds a major second lower than written and is an octave higher than a trombone. The trombone is non-transposing and sounds as written.

Step 1

Understand how the chromatic scale works. The chromatic scale consists of 12 notes between octaves. Starting on C, the chromatic scale is C, C#/Db, D, D#/Eb, E, F, F#/Gb, G, G#/Ab, A, A#/Bb, B. Some of the notes have enharmonics that can be spelled more than one way.

Step 2

Identify the trumpet notes that need to be transposed to trombone notes.

Step 3

Transpose the trumpet notes down a major second. A major second is two steps in the chromatic scale. For instance, if you have an F in the trumpet part, you will play an Eb since Eb is the second step from F.

Step 4

Transpose the notes down another octave and write them in the bass clef so the trombone is able to play the part comfortably in its range. An octave is the distance from one letter name to the next. For instance, an octave above middle C would be a C on the third space of the staff in treble clef.

Sunday, March 24, 2013

How to Characterize the Clarinet Tone

9:05:00 PM
The clarinet has several ways of being characterized and describe by a listener. It depends on what range the clarinet is playing in, how well the player can stay in tune and the timbre that the performer is able to produce from the clarinet. A suitable characterization should include all three of these elements. For example, "The clarinet tone is playing in the high range and has a sharp texture with a slightly flat intonation."

Step 1

Determine the pitch level that the clarinet is playing in. When characterizing tone, it is important to identify whether the clarinet is playing in the high, medium or low register. Each register sounds different, so it is important to first determine what register you are trying to characterize.

Step 2

Describe the clarinet tone in terms of texture. Use words that you would normally use to describe a texture. Words such as grainy, smooth, rough and flexible are appropriate ways to characterize clarinet tones.

Step 3

Determine whether the clarinet is playing in tune. You can tell by using a tuner to check pitches or comparing the clarinet with a piano playing along with the clarinet. If the pitch is below the correct pitch, characterize the pitch as flat. If the pitch is slightly above the correct pitch, characterize the pitch as sharp.

How to Change Vowel Sounds in Sibelius 6

9:04:00 PM
Sibelius 6 is a music notation program that also has audio sequencing capabilities. This means that you can create professional printed notation and play the notation file that you have created. Using Sibelius to modify the vocal sounds can greatly enhance the playback of your audio files. You can change the vowel sounds to improve your ability to playback realistic and effective music.

Step 1

Click on the "Edit" menu and select the "Filter" submenu. A list of additional options will appear. Click on "Edit Instruments."

Step 2

Select the choir audio instrument that you have currently applied to your voice track. In the option on the far right of the dialog box, select "Edit Instrument."

Step 3

Locate the playback defaults section. You will see the current audio playback defaults under the "Best Sounds" option. Click "Choose" underneath that dialog box.

Step 4

Click on "Voice" from the General MIDI box and select the new voice default you would like to use. Options available include "vocal oohs," "choir aahs" and several voice classifications from soprano to bass.

Wednesday, March 20, 2013

How to Circular Breathe on the Flute

9:08:00 PM
Circular breathing on the flute makes it possible for you to play continuously without stopping the airflow. The basis for the technique is simple, but it will require a significant amount of time to master and make it a viable technique in an actual performance. This technique is rarely needed, but it does come in handy for certain pieces in which there isn't much room to breathe such as Rimsky Korsakov's "Flight of the Bumblebee."

Step 1

Breathe in by using your diaphragm muscles. Pull air into your stomach and begin playing a single note.

Step 2

Puff our your cheeks to store air in your mouth which you will use to continue playing when it comes time to take a breath.

Step 3

Breathe in through the nose when you feel that your lungs are running out of air. At the same time, use the air in your mouth and cheeks to continue playing.


Practice breathing in through the nose by using a sniffing motion. You won't be able to breathe in continuously; the technique of circular breathing involves taking short, quick spurts of air. Take in just enough air to keep the airflow constant and to keep breathing.

Thursday, March 14, 2013

How to Choose a Cello for a Kid

9:06:00 PM
Choose the right size cello for your child to ensure that it matches her body size. The right size cello can make the difference between an enjoyable first-time playing experience and a complete disaster. Buying a cello that does not fit the child can result in improperly learned cello technique and an avoidance of the instrument in general. Selecting the instrument that fits the child most comfortably will ensure that you give your child the best chances for success.

Step 1

Measure your child from the top of the head to the toes using a tape measure. Write down your kid's size in feet.

Step 2

Eliminate a few options based on the child's height. Kids less than four feet tall need a one-quarter, or one-eighth size, cello. Kids that are between four and five feet need a half-size or three-quarter size cello. Kids that are more than five feet tall should choose a full-size cello.

Step 3

Sit your child up straight in a chair with his feet flat on the floor.

Step 4

Place the cello neck over her left shoulder and adjust the endpin so that the back of the cello rests on the middle of the chest.

Step 5

Select the instrument in which the child can most easily stretch his hands around the neck of the cello and up and down the entire fingerboard.


Select the largest cello that your child can play comfortably, unless you are renting. A cello is an expensive investment and you want to prolong purchasing a new one as long as possible. Whenever possible, it is preferable to provide the child with a full-size cello.

Tuesday, March 12, 2013

How to Choose Songs for a Dance Recital

9:07:00 PM
Picking songs for a dance recital can be daunting with all of the choices available to you. By breaking the process down into more manageable steps, you can choose the music that will best represent your dancers and create a successful recital. Finding music that fits the needs of each performer should be a high priority since the dancer must feel comfortable with the selection and be able to determine where the beat of the music falls.

Step 1

Decide on a theme for your dance recital. A theme can be anything including a favorite movie, book, cartoon character, food or even animal. Be creative, and choose something that provides several options for performances.

Step 2

Select music that fits your theme. If you use a movie soundtrack theme, then choose soundtracks to the same movie or similar types of movies. Make sure to include songs that vary in character and that have a steady beat that can be danced to.

Step 3

Hire a choreographer to review your music choices; she will be able to tell you if the music is suitable for dance and may be able to offer additional suggestions that you didn't think of.

Step 4

Search for music using online digital music stores. These stores make it possible for you to preview music before you purchase it. This will help you review a large selection of music that you might not otherwise know about. Most stores will also let you categorize your search by similar music and genre. This makes it possible to find numerous songs for a single theme quickly.

Step 5

Assign music to dancers based on their characteristics. Don't assign a light and airy song to a dancer that does her best when dancing forcefully and powerfully. Alternatively, avoid giving fast-paced music to a dancer that doesn't have a great deal of speed.

How to Change the Cork of a Clarinet

8:56:00 PM
Clarinets have cork on the underside of each key that helps to pad the keys and block any air from escaping through the tone holes. Replacing the cork is a relatively straightforward process that will require minimal tools and allow the performer to get back to playing without the need to visit a repair shop. Replacing cork on the keys can be accomplished easily by purchasing the raw cork from your local music store.

Step 1

Remove the cork from the keys using a small flat-head screwdriver. Be careful to avoid damaging the instrument.

Step 2

Apply a small amount of mineral spirits to the top of a cotton swab. Swab the inside of the keypads to remove any remnants of glue.

Step 3

Cut a piece of cork that will fit inside the keypad. Using a two millimeter thick piece of cork will make it possible to file down the cork to the correct size for each key.

Step 4

Apply a small amount of contact cement to the inside of each key's cup. Place the cork inside the cup and press in for about 30 seconds. Let the cork set for five minutes.

Step 5

File down the cork using a nail file until the pad is level with the edge of each key's metal cup.

How to Change the BPM of a Song

8:55:00 PM
Changing the BPM, or beats per minute, of a song can be accomplished using an audio editor. There are free and commercial audio editors that will help you complete the task. Audacity, Cakewalk and Peak Pro are all audio editors that make it possible to modify the beats per minute. Beats per minute refers to the total number of beats in a minute of music. As will all beats, they are equally spaced in time. For instance, a piece that is 60 beats per minute will have one beat per second. While a piece that is 120 beats per minute will have 2 beats per second.

Step 1

Install and initiate your audio editing program. Drag the audio file you would like to modify into the main editing pane. This will import your file and prepare it for editing. The editing pane typically has numbers at the top, like a ruler, that indicate where each second falls in the piece.

Step 2

Select the entire audio file by double-clicking the imported wave file. The entire audio file should change color to indicate that you have highlighted it. You may also select the "Edit" menu and then click on the "Select All" option.

Step 3

Open the "Effect" drop-down menu and select "Change Tempo." If you know the beats per minute of the current song, enter that number into the first box under the option "Beats Per Minute" then enter the new value in the second box. If you don't know the beats per minute of the song, use the slider option to change the tempo by a percentage.


To find the beats per minute of a song, use a stopwatch. Start the music and begin tapping the beat of the song. Start the stopwatch and count the number of beats that occur over 10 seconds of time. Multiply that number by six to get the total beats per minute for the song.

How to Change Songs in Bitrate 32

8:55:00 PM
32 bitrate songs describe a low-quality rate of audio transfer that is used to reduce the quality of the song. Several commercial and free audio-editing applications will allow you to change songs recorded in several audio formats including 32 bitrate. Audacity is a free program used by professional audio editors since it produces high-quality editing in an intuitive and flexible manner. It is possible to cut, splice, edit, remove noise, increase the overall volume and perform several other tasks with this free editor.

Step 1

Download and install the audio-editing program Audacity. It can be found on their main website. There are versions available for Macintosh and PC.

Step 2

Click and drag your 32-bit audio file into the main window of Audacity. This process will automatically analyze your file, determine the sound quality and import it into the editor for editing.

Step 3

View the list of options in the "Edit" and "Effects" menu. Read the documentation on Audacity to learn what each function does, and begin editing your audio file as desired.

Step 4

Export the audio file using the "Export" menu. This step will allow you to choose from several different file types and change your song from 32-bit to another higher or lower quality song format.

How to Add a Link to Play Music on My Website With Adobe Dreamweaver

3:03:00 PM
Dreamweaver is a web-authoring program designed to make it easier to create websites. Creating links to music is a simple process that you can complete in less than a minute. You will need your own hosting service and the knowledge of how to configure Dreamweaver CS3 to upload files to your website. However, if you already know how to do this, the process of adding music should pose no issues for you.

Step 1 Start Dreamweaver. Open your website file.

Step 2 Navigate to the page where you would like to post your audio file. 

Step 3 Drag the audio file from your computer into the design editor. You will receive a prompt asking if you would like to copy the file over. Confirm that you wish to copy the file to your list of files.

Step 4 Upload your updated website files to the Internet and view your audio link.

Sunday, March 3, 2013

How to Change Bitrate in Audacity

8:53:00 PM
The audio bitrate in a music editing program should be adjusted before any work is started on an electronic composition. The bitrate determines the amount of information each second of sound can hold. The higher the bit rate the less likely your song will have distortion and the quality of the audio will be higher, but it also requires more memory on your computer. Audacity will allow you to choose three main bit rates: 16, 24 and 32. Even though a CD will only allow for 16-bit audio, it is still beneficial to record at a higher bit rate when possible.

Step 1

Start Audacity by double-clicking on the program icon. This will open up your default settings and allow you to choose a new or existing project.

Step 2

Select your options for a new file, or open a file you currently are working on. You do not need to have any music recorded before you change the bitrate.

Step 3

Click on the main Audacity menu and a drop-down menu will appear.

Step 4

Select preferences from the drop-down menu. A new dialog box will appear with several options on the left. The options include devices, playback, recording, quality and several other options.

Step 5

Click on the Quality option. In the panel on the right there will be options for sample rate and default sample format. The sample rate should be at 44100 Hertz or higher for CD-quality sound. The Default Sample Format is where you can change the bit rate. Select from the 16-, 24- or 32-bit drop-down menu.

Step 6

Click OK. You can now start using Audacity in the bitrate you have selected.

Saturday, March 2, 2013

How to Change a Piano Hammer

8:52:00 PM
Changing piano hammers is necessary when the felt on them erodes and the piano loses its soft sound. This requires several tools and a certain degree of expertise to complete the process properly. If you must do more than simply replacing the hammers, such as drilling and creating the hammer on your own, it is better to hire a professional. Otherwise, simply replacing the hammer can be done by most people, with the right tools.

Step 1

Remove one of the hammers from the grid, by applying heat to the base of the hammer to loosen the glue. Bring it to your local music store, and ask them to measure it and order a set of replacement hammers. The hammer is measured with calipers, from one end to the other.

Step 2

Apply yellow carpenter's glue to the top of the old shank. Then place the new hammer on top of the old shank. Align the hammer so it hits the string evenly, then allow the hammer to sit overnight until the glue dries.

Step 3

Shape the hammer head, so the felt is flat and hits the strings evenly. You can shape the felt, and cut the edges to make this possible.


When changing piano hammer heads, replace all the connected parts as well, such as the shanks and flanges. This process requires special tools and training. Hire a professional piano tuner, or take an instrument repair class to learn how to do this properly.


Generally, replacing hammer heads should be done by a qualified professional. This process can cost up to several thousand dollars and is more art than science.

Friday, March 1, 2013

How to Change a Clef in Finale

8:50:00 PM
Finale is a music notation program that makes it possible to notate music using a computer. Music notation programs have greatly increased the speed at which composers can compose and edit their music. Finale was one of the first programs on the market to serve this need. Finale 2011 makes it possible to quickly change a clef and manipulate the music on the screen. When you finish writing your score, Finale will even let you play back and record your music.

Step 1

Click on the "Selection Tool" in the "Main Tool Palette." This tool looks like an arrow inside of a box with a broken dotted line. It is the first tool in the palette under the default settings. It will be in a different place if you have changed the order of the tools.

Step 2

Select the staff at the top of the score by clicking on it once. The measure will turn blue to indicate that it has been selected.

Step 3

Right-click on the measure to be changed. A drop-down menu will appear. Select the "Clef..." option from the menu.

Step 4

Enter the parameters for the clef change in the dialog box that appears. Select the clef from the list of available clefs. There are typically 16 different clefs to choose from depending on the version of Finale. Enter in the options for the measures you would like to clef to begin and end. Press "OK."


There are several methods for inputting a clef. The right-click method is the simplest and fastest method.